vip08体育手机版-诺基亚何以折戟智能手机市场(上)

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本文摘要:Frank Nuovo, the former chief designer at Nokia Corp., NOK +2.37% gave presentations more than a decade ago to wireless carriers and investors that divined the future of the mobile Internet. 十多年前,原诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)首席设计师诺沃(Frank Nuovo)向无线运营商和投资者做到报告,庞加莱移动互联网的未来。

Frank Nuovo, the former chief designer at Nokia Corp., NOK +2.37% gave presentations more than a decade ago to wireless carriers and investors that divined the future of the mobile Internet. 十多年前,原诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)首席设计师诺沃(Frank Nuovo)向无线运营商和投资者做到报告,庞加莱移动互联网的未来。More than seven years before Apple Inc. AAPL -0.11% rolled out the iPhone, the Nokia team showed a phone with a color touch screen set above a single button. The device was shown locating a restaurant, playing a racing game and ordering lipstick. In the late 1990s, Nokia secretly developed another alluring product: a tablet computer with a wireless connection and touch screen-all features today of the hot-selling Apple iPad. 在苹果(Apple Inc.)发售iPhone七年多之前,诺基亚团队就展示了一款享有彩色触屏、屏幕下方有一个分开按键的手机。

展示中,这款手机需要定位餐馆、玩游戏赛车游戏,还可以采购唇膏。20世纪90年代晚期,诺基亚秘密研发出有另一款诱人的产品。

那是一款平板电脑,有无线连接功能,配有了触摸屏,这些都是苹果热卖产品iPad今天享有的特色与功能。Oh my God, Mr. Nuovo says as he clicks through his old slides. We had it completely nailed. 诺沃一旁网页着他昔日的幻灯片,一旁说道:天哪,我们几乎逃跑了敌。Consumers never saw either device. The gadgets were casualties of a corporate culture that lavished funds on research but squandered opportunities to bring the innovations it produced to market. 消费者未曾看见这两款产品。

诺基亚斥巨资用作研发,却浪费了把创意引进市场的机会。上述两款产品正是这种企业文化的牺牲品。Nokia led the wireless revolution in the 1990s and set its sights on ushering the world into the era of smartphones. Now that the smartphone era has arrived, the company is racing to roll out competitive products as its stock price collapses and thousands of employees lose their jobs. 诺基亚在90年代引导了无线革命,并下定决心要把世界带上入智能手机时代。现在智能手机时代早已来临,诺基亚却还在为发售有竞争力的产品而忙得不亦乐乎,而此时该公司的股价已大幅度暴跌,成千上万的员工毁掉了饭碗。

This year, Nokia ended a 14-year-run as the worlds largest maker of mobile phones, as rival Samsung Electronics Co. 005930.SE -1.20% took the top spot and makers of cheaper phones ate into Nokias sales volumes. Nokias share of mobile phone sales fell to 21% in the first quarter from 27% a year earlier, according to market data from IDC. Its share peaked at 40.4% at the end of 2007. 今年诺基亚完结了倒数14年沦为世界仅次于手机生产商的历史。竞争对手三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)抢走过头把交椅,生产更加廉价手机的公司也在分食诺基亚的市场。IDC获取的市场数据表明,一季度诺基亚在手机市场的份额早已从去年同期的27%上升到21%。

其最低份额是在2007年第四季度,当时超过了40.4%。The impact was evident in Nokias financial report for the first three months of the year. It swung to a loss of 929 million, or $1.1 billion, from a profit of 344 million a year earlier. It had revenue of 7.4 billion, down 29%, and it sold 82.7 million phones, down 24%. Nokia reports its second-quarter results Thursday and has already said losses in its mobile phone business will be worse than expected. Its shares currently trade at 1.37 a share, down 64% so far this year.份额上升的影响显著反映在诺基亚一季度的财务报表里。财报表明诺基亚从去年一季度盈利3.44亿欧元变成亏损9.29亿欧元(合11亿美元)。

收益为74亿欧元,上升29%;手机销量为8,270万部,上升24%。诺基亚周四公布第二季度财报,而且还回应手机业务的亏损有可能比预期更大。目前诺基亚股价为1.37欧元,年初目前为止上升了64%。

Nokia is losing ground despite spending $40 billion on research and development over the past decade-nearly four times what Apple spent in the same period. And Nokia clearly saw where the industry it dominated was heading. But its research effort was fragmented by internal rivalries and disconnected from the operations that actually brought phones to market. 尽管过去10年该公司投资400亿美元用作研发──这一数额相似苹果同一时期研发投放的四倍,诺基亚依然在市场上节节败退。而且诺基亚显著是看见了它所主导的行业的发展方向。然而,研发工作因为内部嫌隙而碎片化,并且跟生产销售手机的实际运营活动僵化。Instead of producing hit devices or software, the binge of spending has left the company with at least two abandoned operating systems and a pile of patents that analysts now say are worth around $6 billion, the bulk of the value of the entire company. Chief Executive Stephen Elop plans to start selling more of that family silver to keep the company going until it can turn around its fortunes. 大规模的投放并没带给大受欢迎的终端或软件,而是给诺基亚留给了最少两款被舍弃的操作系统和一大堆专利。

据分析师现在估算,这些专利的价值在60亿美元左右,包含了整个公司价值的主要部分。首席执行长埃洛普(Stephen Elop)打算从这些“传家宝”里面拿走更加多东西变卖,让公司承托到需要挽回自身命运的时刻。If only they had been landed in products, Mr. Elop said of the companys inventions in a recent interview, I think Nokia would have been in a different place. 埃洛普在最近拒绝接受的一次专访中说道,要是诺基亚的创意当初实施在产品上面,诺基亚就不是现在这个样子了。

Nokia isnt the only company to lose its way in the treacherous cellphone market. Research In Motion Ltd. RIMM +0.43% had a dominant position thanks to its BlackBerry email device, but it hasnt been able to come up with a solution to the iPhone either. 在危机四伏的手机市场迷失方向的公司不只诺基亚一家。Research In Motion Ltd.(全称RIM)曾因电子邮件终端黑莓(BlackBerry)而占有霸主地位,但它也没需要拿走一款与iPhone一较高下的产品。As a result, the company has lost about 90% of its market value in the past five years, and its CEO is trying to convince investors the company isnt in a death spiral. 不受此影响,RIM的市值在过去五年大跌大约90%,其CEO正在希望让投资者坚信该公司并没陷于“丧生螺旋”。Whereas RIM lacked the right product, Nokia actually developed the sorts of devices that consumers are gobbling up today. It just didnt bring them to market. In a strategic blunder, it shifted its focus from smartphones back to basic phones right as the iPhone upended the market. RIM的问题是缺少适合的产品,而诺基亚实质上是研发出有了今天消费者可怕供不应求的几类终端,只是没把这些终端引进市场。

就在iPhone政治宣传市场的时候,诺基亚把焦点从智能手机后移返回基本款手机上面,犯有了战略错误。I was heartbroken when Apple got the jump on this concept, says Mr. Nuovo, Nokias former chief designer. When people say the iPhone as a concept, a piece of hardware, is unique, that upsets me. 原诺基亚首席设计师诺沃说道,苹果在这一概念上占到得先机时,我感觉十分心痛;每当别人说道iPhone作为一个概念和一款硬件产品是独一无二的,我都深感伤心。

Mr. Elop, a Canadian who took over as Nokias first non-Finnish chief executive in 2010, is now trying to refocus a company that he says grew complacent because of its market dominance. 加拿大人埃洛普在2010年沦为诺基亚首位非芬兰籍的首席执行长,现在他于是以希望调整公司的战略焦点。他说道,诺基亚过去因为它在市场的主导地位而显得可笑了。Shortly after taking the job, Mr. Elop scrapped work on Nokias homegrown smartphone software and said the company would use Microsoft Corp.s MSFT +2.66% Windows mobile operating system. By doing so, he was able to deliver a new line of phones to compete with the iPhone in less than a year, much quicker than if Nokia had stuck with its own software, he says. 埃洛普离任旋即后,就暂停了诺基亚自有智能手机软件的研发,他说道该公司将用于微软公司(Microsoft Corp.)的Windows移动操作系统。埃洛普说道,这样他就需要在严重不足一年之内发售一个新的手机系列与iPhone竞争,比诺基亚坚决用于自己的软件发售产品的速度要更快。

Those phones arent selling strongly. The company hasnt broken out numbers but said in April that initial sales were mixed, and two months later said competition had been tougher than expected. Mr. Elop was forced in mid-June to announce another 10,000 layoffs and $1.7 billion in cost cuts that will fall heavily on research and development. On Sunday, Nokia cut the U.S. price of the phones in half, to $50. 诺基亚发售的Windows手机销售情况并很差。该公司仍未发布销售数据,但今年4月曾说道初期销售情况喜忧参半,两个月后又说道竞争比他们预期的更加白热化。

埃洛普不得不在6月中旬宣告诺基亚再行裁员1万人并缩减成本17亿美元,裁员和成本缩减主要将针对研发部门。周日,诺基亚将在美国销售的Windows手机降价一半,至50美元。Nokia has a long history of successfully adapting to big market shifts. The company started out in 1865 as a lumber mill. Over the years, it diversified into electricity production and rubber products. 诺基亚长期以来仍然需要顺利适应环境极大的市场变化。

该公司创办于1865年,最初是一家木材厂,后来渐渐将业务多样化,转入发电和塑料产品领域。At the end of the 1980s, the Soviet Unions collapse and recession in Europe caused demand for Nokias diverse slate of products to dry up, leaving the company in crisis. Jorma Ollila, a former Citibank banker, took over as CEO in 1992 and focused Nokia on cellphones. 上世纪80年代末,苏联的解体和欧洲的衰落导致诺基亚各类产品的市场需求大幅度下降,公司陷于危机。1992年,曾为花旗银行(Citibank)银行家的奥利拉(Jorma Ollila)接替首席执行长一职,将诺基亚的业务重点放在手机上。

Nokia factories eventually sprang up from Germany to China, part of a logistics machine so well-oiled that Nokia could feed the worlds demand for cellphones faster than any other manufacturer in the world. Profits soared, and the companys share price followed, giving Nokia a market value of 303 billion at its peak in 2000. 诺基亚的工厂最后经常出现在从德国到中国的诸多国家,诺基亚的物流环节运转得十分流畅,实在太它需要比世界上任何其他制造商都更慢地符合全球消费者的手机市场需求。诺基亚的利润大幅度下降,该公司股价也随之攀升,2000年诺基亚的市值最低曾超过3,030亿欧元。Mr. Ollila and other top executives became stars in Finland, often requesting private dining rooms when they went out to eat, senior executives said. 高管们说道,奥利拉和其他高层管理人员在芬兰出了明星,他们过来用餐时经常要用包间。Early on, the CEO started laying the groundwork for the companys next reinvention. Nokia executives predicted that the business of producing cellphones that do little but make calls would lose its profitability by 2000. So the company started spending billions of dollars to research mobile email, touch screens and faster wireless networks. 早于在当年,奥利拉即开始为诺基亚的下一阶段改建打下基础。

诺基亚的高管们曾预测,2000年前,生产仅有具备电话功能的手机将无法之后盈利。于是,诺基亚开始耗资数十亿美元研发手机电子邮件、触控屏和更加较慢的无线网络。In 1996, the company unveiled its first smartphone, the Nokia 9000, and called it the first mobile device that could email, fax and surf the Web. It weighed slightly under a pound. 1996年,该公司公布了其首款智能手机“诺基亚9000”,相提并论它是首款需要发送电子邮件、发传真和网际网路的手机。这款手机重量略低于一磅。

We had exactly the right view of what it was all about, says Mr. Ollila, who stepped down as chief executive in 2006 and retired as chairman in May. We were about five years ahead. 奥利拉说道,我们对手机行业的发展曾具有精确的意识到。2006年,他辞任首席执行长一职,今年5月辞任了董事长一职。他说道,我们的眼光落后了大约五年。

The phone, also called the Communicator, made an appearance in the movie The Saint and drew a dedicated following among certain business users, but never commanded a mass audience. “诺基亚9000”又被称作“Communicator”,曾在影片《圣人》(The Saint)中暗过互为,在某些企业用户中取得了相当大的注目,但未曾吞并过普通大众。


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